The following processes are grouped together under membrane processes:
Micro- and ultrafiltrationmembranes are purely mechanical "fine sieves". These fine sieves consist of porous, artificially created films, so-called membranes, with precisely defined pore diameters. The separating layers are applied to so-called carrier material. Polymers or ceramics are used as carrier materials. Membrane filtration technologies are used for the widest variety of applications in the water treatment field, often in conjunction with classical processes.
In nanofiltration and reverse osmosis, dense, diffusion-open membranes are used. In these processes, the separation process is performed by diffusion through the membrane. The driving force in all cases is the differential pressure. While differential pressures of up to 2 bar are required for micro- and ultrafiltration, low-pressure nanofiltration requires differential pressures of up to 8 bar and reverse osmosis up to 60 bar.
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